USD to --- Chart.
Value of a dollar. Calculates inflation to see what a U.S. dollar was worth in the past and today. View historical and today's current inflation rates, using the CPI provided by the United States government. A popular outrage to share these days on Facebook and Twitter is how the Indian rupee which was equal to 1 US dollar on 15th, August has fallen to the recent lows. An IANS news wire picked up by multiple newspapers also mentioned this very interesting 'fact'.
I am sure it is nobody's contention that India of is worse off than India of If low borrowings made up for strong currencies then North Korea might have been a front runner. Ambedkar made strong arguments for not fixing exchange rates long before independence and they remain valid till date.
As Ambedkar had mentioned, a stable currency is what matters rather than the absolute exchange rate. There are much better statistics to track progress of the country since independence.
We inherited a economy struggling at a growth rate of just 0. Life expectancy at birth has more than doubled from Point being, that we don't have to resort to fictitious numbers to argue for or against any position.
Recently a Portugese-Maratha war article on wikipedia was found to be a hoax. Even I repeated an oft-used line of Kashmir having been sold to Gulab Singh in in a previous article but noticed later when reading the actual Treaty of Amritsar that the word Kashmir is not to be found there. Since the population has risen over 2, and has stayed pretty well stabilized at over 8, Austria is a largely mountainous country due to its location in the Alps.
The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country. The second greater mountain area much lower than the Alps is situated in the north. According to the WWF , the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: View of Krems at the end of Wachau valley. With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant.
In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley —the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. According to the Köppen Climate Classification Austria has the following climate types: It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe. The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.
Austria consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita ,  due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy. Until the s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.
Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy.
Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria. Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Since Austria became a member state of the European Union , it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany.
In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP reached 3. Austria indicated on 16 November that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.
The Financial crisis of — dented the economy of Austria in other ways as well. Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between and , 4, mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of bil. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced. In , the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube , following a unanimous vote in parliament.
However, in , a referendum voted approximately Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower. The Kölnbrein Dam in Carinthia. Passenger ship on Danube River. Austria's population was estimated to be nearly 9 million 8. It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living.
Vienna is by far the country's largest city. Graz is second in size, with , inhabitants, followed by Linz , , Salzburg , , and Innsbruck , All other cities have fewer than , inhabitants. According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, , 9. There are more than , descendants of foreign-born immigrants  residing in Austria, the great majority of whom have been naturalised. While 2, Turks left Austria in the same year, 10, immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth.
The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. Standard Austrian German is Austria's official language, though used primarily just in education, publications, announcements and websites. It is mostly identical to the Standard German of Germany but with some vocabulary differences. The German language is standardised between countries of German mother tongue, i. Italy, Belgium and Denmark. Many local dialects are spoken in Austria, and though their base is Austrian German, their corresponding speakers have certain degrees of difficulty when trying to understand each other.
The common spoken language of Austria is not the Standard German taught in schools, however, but the Austro-Bavarian language: German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority while in the easternmost state, Burgenland formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria—Hungary , there are significant Hungarian - and Croatian -speaking minorities.
Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations.
Guest workers Gastarbeiter and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria. Since the Roma — Sinti gypsies have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria.
According to census information published by Statistik Austria for  there were a total of , foreign nationals living in Austria. Of these, the largest by far are , foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia of whom , speak Serbian; , Croatian; 31, Bosnian — i.
The second largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the Turks including minority of Kurds with a number of , to , who currently live in Austria. The Turks and the Kurds are the largest single immigrant group in Austria,  closely followed by the Serbs. The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the , who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, Romania , or the former Soviet Union ; , English; 24, Albanian; 17, Polish; 14, Hungarian; 12, Romanian; 10, Malayali; 7, Arabic; 6, Slovak; 6, Czech; 5, Persian; 5, Italian; 5, Russian; 5, French; 4, Chinese; 4, Spanish; 3, Bulgarian.
The numbers for other languages fall off sharply below 3, In , some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society. Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II.
In , Germany was founded as a nation-state , Austria was not a part of it. After World War I and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" Republic of German-Austria and that it was part of the German Republic.
A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state. After the events of World War II and Nazism , Austria as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity among its populace [ citation needed ] , and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans.
Austrians may be described either as a nationality or as a homogeneous Germanic ethnic group ,  that is closely related to neighboring Germans , Liechtensteiners and German-speaking Swiss. Serbs form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around , people.
The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in An estimated 13, to 40, Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia the Carinthian Slovenes as well as Croats around 30,  and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty Staatsvertrag of The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene and Croat Austrians live alongside the German-speaking population as required by the State Treaty is still to be fully implemented in the view of some, while others believe that the treaty-derived obligations have been met see below.
Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims, [ citation needed ] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory.
The recently deceased governor, Jörg Haider , has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. Another interesting phenomenon is the so-called " Windischen-Theorie " stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago.
Religion in Austria   . Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined.
Data for from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,, members, or According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll , . Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states Bundesländer and partly to the federal government.
School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i. Pre-school education called Kindergarten in German , free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate.
Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. Primary education, or Volksschule , lasts for four years, starting at age six. The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being.
Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is no streaming. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.
As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura.
Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school.
As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing.
Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report "Zeugnis" are a prerequisite for moving up "aufsteigen" to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year "sitzenbleiben". It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" slightly more emphasis on arts or "Realgymnasium" slightly more emphasis on science.
Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.
The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently. A bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. There are some non-state exceptions to this, where students can still study for a subsidized education, for example within the campus system of the English Teacher Training College.
Since , for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e. Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music.
Vienna was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. During the Baroque period , Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music. Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute.
Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. Austrian Herbert von Karajan was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the s until his death. International pop super star Johann Hölzel, also known by his stage name Falco was born in Vienna , Austria 19 February Conchita Wurst is also a renowned singer from the Austrian stock.
Contemporary artist Herbert Brandl. Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. Billy Wilder , Fritz Lang , Josef von Sternberg , and Fred Zinnemann originally came from Austria before establishing themselves as internationally relevant movie makers.
Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, before receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon in A number of Austrian actors were able to pursue a career, the impact of which was sensed beyond national borders. Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became American as well as international movie stars.
The latter also became the 38th Governor of California. Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions.
Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director. Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. In the 20th century, contributions by Lise Meitner , Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the s and s. A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger , noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation.
In addition to physicists , Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus.
Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth , Clemens von Pirquet , and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th-century Vienna School of Medicine. Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists.
Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine "Hofküche" delivered over centuries. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as " Apfelstrudel " filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and " Millirahmstrudel " milk-cream strudel.
In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian , Bohemia Czech , Jewish , Italian, Balkan and French cuisine, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe.
There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen, potatoes, herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce. Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. The sugar block dispenser Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten. Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. Beer is sold in 0. The base index value is in Jan The trade-weighted dollar index was introduced in for two primary reasons.
The first was the introduction of the euro , which eliminated several of the currencies in the standard dollar index; the second was to keep pace with new developments in US trade. In the older U. Dollar Index , a significant weight is given to the euro, because most U.
Trade in was with European countries. To more accurately reflect the strength of the dollar relative to other world currencies, the Federal Reserve created the trade-weighted US dollar index,  which includes a bigger collection of currencies than the US dollar index. The regions included are:.
Austrian rural area of Schoppernau in summer.
There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as " Apfelstrudel " filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and " Millirahmstrudel " milk-cream strudel. Czechoslovakia — Saar assoc.