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Sometimes the initiator of the proposal will have anticipated some or all of these issues and presents a report addressing them. In any event, in due course a decision must be taken as to whether to proceed with a full-scale effort to formulate the instrument in question.

In taking such a decision, the organ concerned should be conscious but often apparently is not, at least sufficiently that by the nature of institutional inertia a project of this type, once undertaken, is not likely to be abandoned, even if the prospects of success should fade, due to either a later, better understanding of the problem or actual changes in circumstances, and even if time and cost projections are wildly exceeded.

Other types of unsatisfactory outcomes must also be anticipated. One is the eventual production of an emasculated instrument, reflecting an inability to agree on actually useful rules, and that in particularly unfortunate circumstances actually constitutes a retreat from a higher level of international obligation previously existing or in the course of development. Alternatively, an instrument may be formulated and adopted that contains such a high level of obligations that many states, or at least certain crucial ones, refuse to participate.

In either event, an ill-planned project may then constitute, at least for a time and in a particular forum, a bar to further productive work. For these reasons, the question of whether any limits should be placed on the initiation of the multilateral treaty-making process was one of those most intensively explored by the General Assembly in its above-mentioned review exercise. In the end the Assembly refrained from establishing or even endorsing any explicit restraints, as allegedly incompatible with the sovereign right of any state to introduce proposals in any international organ in which it participates.

Nevertheless, the General Assembly in effect appealed to states to show self-restraint in initiating proposals of this type, and by indicating the criteria by which IGO organs should study such proposals it at least implied that those that do not measure up should be rejected. In this connection it should be pointed out that one distinctive feature of the international legislative process, compared to municipal ones, is its highly decentralized and consequently at best poorly coordinated nature.

Competence to deal with particular questions, such as environmental ones, may exist simultaneously in political organizations such as, on the worldwide level, the United Nations, and, on regional ones, the Organization of American States OAS or the Organization of African Unity OAU , in certain technically oriented specialized agencies on the worldwide or the regional level, in specialized worldwide e.

Which of these chooses to initiate a particular project may thus depend on chance, on the aggressiveness of an executive head, or on obscure political considerations that lead interested states to approach a particular institution. Though the UN General Assembly can of course issue directives to its own subsidiary organs and those of the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC , in respect of specialized agencies it can only issue recommendations, which the latter are obliged to duly consider, while independent regional organizations are not even under such a gentle restraint.

Though within the UN system there are coordinating organs, such as the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination ACC , these operate primarily on the inter-secretariat level and therefore can influence the political organs only indirectly by facilitating the flow of information about what activities are underway or planned in the various organizations participating in the system.

Once a competent IGO organ decides formally to initiate the process of formulating a multilateral law-making treaty - or, for that matter, some other type of norm-establishing instrument - the second major stage in the international legislative process commences. This stage, in turn, consists of a number of steps, which, however, do not necessarily follow each other in a neat sequence but may overlap, iterate, in part be omitted, and in any event be structured in many different ways.

All that is possible is to give a general description of the purpose and preferred means of executing each of these steps, on the understanding that the actual process may differ in respect of any given exercise, driven either ad hoc by the internal dynamics of the particular process or by certain more or less rigid schedules that may be characteristic of a particular organ such as the International Law Commission, the ILC or organization such as ILO.

Depending on what studies were carried out before the project was first proposed or in any event as part of the decision to initiate it, it may or may not be necessary to carry out further investigations before beginning to formulate the instrument.

Such studies may deal, especially in respect of proposed environmental instruments, with scientific or technical matters, or with the current state of national and international activities and laws in the area. As to how any necessary studies are carried out, this depends in part on their nature and in part on the usages of the IGO concerned. Often this task is assigned to the organization's secretariat, which can either perform it with its own resources, with specially engaged staff especially if the exercise is a large-scale one - such as the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS III , or with consultants.

Another favoured approach is to convene expert groups, the members of which are either appointed by the executive head of the lGO who is likely to do so on the basis of governmental recommendations and will in any event take into account various political balances or by particular states interested in and able to participate in the project.

Finally, the task may be carried out by a particular subsidiary organ of the sponsoring IGO, especially if such organ has itself an expert character such as ILC. Perhaps no other step can be carried out in so many different ways as the preparation of the initial draft of a proposed norm-creating instrument. Sometimes a draft is submitted by the initiating state as part of its first proposal of the project - though, unless such submission is preceded by careful albeit informal consultations, it is likely to create suspicions and even a backlash.

Sometimes the preparation of such a draft is assigned to the organ charged with preparing the above-mentioned initial studies and constitutes part of its report. Lastly, the draft may be prepared in the negotiating forum see next subheading by a specially assigned rapporteur, a working group, or the secretariat, or simply evolve gradually out of the consideration of the subject.

Rather than starting with a complete draft text, with each of at least the substantive provisions spelled out completely, even if only tentatively, it is sometimes found preferable to start with only "heads of agreement," i. In any event, the so-called "formal" or "final clauses" are often omitted entirely at this stage, unless some aspect of them e. The most difficult and generally the longest substage in formulating a new instrument is that required to negotiate its terms and text.

It is this part of the process that is most clearly political, in that it involves the mediation of the various interests concerned: The need for such negotiations naturally informs the entire legislative process - indeed, it is one of the reasons why that term is appropriate, for the negotiations required to formulate international laws may differ in scope but not in any other essential respect from those required for national or even local laws.

Often negotiation starts before the treaty-formulating process has been formally initiated, in that the initiator may consult with leading states before ever introducing a proposal. The considerations involved in whether to initiate the process may also already involve advance decisions as to substance and form, which may be reflected in the terms of the IGO resolution approving the start of the process 10 and also in the choice of or in the composition of any ad hoc organs whether expert or representative mandated to carry out or to assist in the formulating process.

Though in principle the negotiations culminate in the decision on the adoption of the proposed instrument, in practice they may continue as they have in respect of UNCLOS and especially the protection of the ozone layer 11 even into the post-adoption period.

Naturally, the preferred organ for carrying out negotiations is a representative one, that is an organ consisting of the instructed representatives of states. If the sponsoring IGO is a worldwide or large regional one, then most often the designated organ is a restricted one, that is not a plenary one in which all IGO members are represented. A standing restricted organ such as the member UNEP Council or the governing organ of a specialized agency always has a balanced composition considered appropriate for the general business of the IGO 12 if the task is assigned to an ad hoc organ, then the agreement about its composition may constitute, as pointed out above, one of the initial manoeuvres in the negotiating process.

However, it should be understood that even if certain steps in formulating an instrument are assigned to an expert organ, the latter is likely to function, in effect, as a negotiating forum. Although the negotiations are normally carried out by persons formally designated as state representatives, such as the members of IGO organs, it has become more and more customary to permit a certain participation to the representatives of non-official organizations, in particular of NGOs.

It is this device that increasingly permits the interested public, i. This is a most significant and relatively recent development, which is particularly important in the environmental field, where a number of well-financed and knowledgeable NGOs including, of course, those established by interested business and industrial councils operate and consider their participation in international norm-making to be a major aspect of their work.

The international legislative process is, in spite of the increasingly frequent but still peripheral involvement of ad personam experts and of NGOs, primarily a dialogue among governments, carried out by their designated representatives for the most part in IGO organs.

Thus, in a sense, governments, at least the principal ones, are technically always up to date with the state of progress of any given legislative project. Nevertheless, especially since the bulk of this work is normally carried out in low-profile IGO organs with restricted membership, it is useful for many governments, and especially for the majority not represented on such organs, to receive periodic progress reports and in particular to be given an opportunity to make a direct input.

This may be accomplished in several ways, but two are the most usual. Organs with restricted membership, whether or not these are constitutional principal organs i e. The locomotive depot in Reichenbach that had been used previously was no longer needed. A further success is the extension of the network into Zwickau town centre. Following the example set by the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn , the lines extend from Zwickau Hauptbahnhof to the central markets.

As most of the Vogtland network has not been electrified, the train-trams do not use current from the tramwires as in Karlsruhe but are driven by diesel engines.

Between the Hauptbahnhof and Stadthall there was a link that could be reactivated. From there to Zentrum the train and the tram use the same tracks. An extra rail was laid next to the tram line so that they share one rail and each use one of the others as appropriate. Since the tramway was only built at this time, a third track and a larger distance between the tracks could be planned from the start, making the retrofitting possible.

The diesel sets run on the common route under BOStrab procedures, so they were equipped with indicators and brake lights. However, the area used by the tracks can be used by rescue vehicles and rail replacement buses. In the years that followed Vogtlandbahn had many opportunities to bid for further routes to expand its network. From their core routes in the Vogtland they moved over into Bavaria and Thuringia , with lines to Hof , Schleiz and Gera. When the Czech Republic became a candidate for European Union membership a new market opened.

In , after a year gap, the Zwickau—Klingenthal line was reconnected to Kraslice Graslitz. Traffic had not increased between Schönberg and Schleiz , so that the Thuringian local transport authority was not willing to extend the contract for the operation.

There was no connection with the reduction in the support for regionalisation measures, which had been decided a few months earlier, since the end of the service was already anticipated. On the other hand, Vogtlandbahn would gain new services in the north-east of Bavaria. Finally, in autumn Bavaria sold its final stake in the Länderbahn to the British-owned Arriva group, who already owned the Prignitz railway in Brandenburg.

This made them the second largest railway company in Germany. After Arriva was bought by Deutsche Bahn in , the business had to be resold to preserve competition. The new owners were the Italian state railways Ferrovie dello Stato together with Luxembourg infrastructure fund Cube. The German parent company has been called Netinera since March The core network of Vogtlandbahn in the Vogtlandkreis , west Saxony and east Thuringia was re-tendered by the transport authority in the spring of Vogtlandbahn won the contract in September , so the traffic in the Vogtland will continue to be operated by this company from December to December Regio-Shuttles, Desiros and RegioSprinters are used for these operations.

The brand name in the core network is vogtlandbahn in lower case , despite the renaming of the company as Die Länderbahn. In the current timetable, many lines are operated by the Länderbahn under the brand names of vogtlandbahn , alex , waldbahn , oberpfalzbahn and trilex:. Between Zwickau, Falkenstein and Klingenthal, Kraslice, as well as between Falkenstein and Plauen, the trains usually operate hourly. On weekends, services on these sections of line, operate every two hours.

Since the timetable change on 14 December , services of the Länderbahn operate on the Dresden—Görlitz and Dresden—Zittau — Liberec lines. Dadurch geraten die Verbraucher indirekt in Verbindung mit Konflikten, die schwerwiegende Auswirkungen auf die Menschenrechte haben, und zwar insbesondere die Frauenrechte, da bewaffnete Gruppen häufig Massenvergewaltigungen gezielt einsetzen, um lokale Bevölkerungsgruppen einzuschüchtern und zu beherrschen und so ihre eigenen Interessen zu wahren.

Im Rahmen dieser Verordnung, und wie in den OECD-Leitsätzen für die Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht dargelegt, ist die Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht in der Lieferkette ein laufender, in die Zukunft wirkender und reaktiver Prozess, durch den Wirtschaftsbeteiligte ihre Beschaffungen und Verkäufe so überwachen und verwalten, dass sichergestellt wird, dass sie nicht zu Konflikten oder deren negativen Auswirkungen beitragen. Die Durchführung von Prüfungen durch Dritte Third Party Audits in Bezug auf die Verfahren eines Wirtschaftsbeteiligten zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht in der Lieferkette stellt Glaubwürdigkeit sicher, von der die nachgelagerten Wirtschaftsbeteiligten profitieren, und trägt zur Verbesserung der Praxis in Bezug auf die Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht im vorgelagerten Bereich bei.

Die Unionseinführer tragen individuell Verantwortung dafür, dass sie die in dieser Verordnung festgelegten Pflichten zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflichten einhalten.

Es existieren bereits Systeme zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht, die dazu beitragen sollen, die Verknüpfung zwischen Konflikten und der Beschaffung von Zinn, Tantal, Wolfram und Gold zu durchbrechen. Im Rahmen dieser Systeme werden mithilfe von Prüfungen durch unabhängige Dritte Hütten und Raffinerien zertifiziert, die über Systeme verfügen, mit denen sichergestellt wird, dass Minerale auf verantwortungsvolle Weise beschafft werden.

Die Methoden und Kriterien für die Anerkennung solcher Systeme als gleichwertig mit den Anforderungen dieser Verordnung sollten in einem delegierten Rechtsakt festgelegt werden, damit die einzelnen Wirtschaftsbeteiligten, die Teilnehmer dieser Systeme sind, diese Verordnung einhalten können, und damit es nicht zu doppelten Prüfungen kommt.

Die Wirtschaftsbeteiligten in der Union haben mittels öffentlicher Konsultationen ihr Interesse an der verantwortungsvollen Beschaffung von Mineralen bekundet und über derzeitige Systeme zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht berichtet, die auf die Verfolgung ihrer Ziele im Bereich der sozialen Verantwortung der Unternehmen, auf Kundenanfragen oder die Versorgungssicherheit abstellen.

Die Wirtschaftsbeteiligten in der Union haben indessen auch über zahllose Schwierigkeiten und praktische Probleme bei der Wahrnehmung ihrer Sorgfaltspflicht in der Lieferkette berichtet, die dadurch bedingt sind, dass in lange und komplexe globale Lieferketten eine Vielzahl von Wirtschaftsbeteiligten eingebunden ist, die sich der Problematik oftmals nur unzureichend bewusst sind oder kein Interesse an ethischen Angelegenheiten haben.

Die Kommission sollte die Kosten der verantwortungsvollen Beschaffung und der Durchführung von Prüfungen durch unabhängige Dritte, die verwaltungstechnischen Auswirkungen einer solchen Beschaffung und Prüfung und ihre möglichen Auswirkungen auf die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit insbesondere von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen KMU überprüfen und dem Parlament und dem Rat über ihre Erkenntnisse Bericht erstatten. Die Kommission sollte sicherstellen, dass Kleinstunternehmen sowie kleine und mittlere Unternehmen von geeigneter technischer Unterstützung profitieren, und sie sollte den Informationsaustausch unterstützen, damit diese Verordnung umgesetzt wird.

In der Union niedergelassene Kleinstunternehmen sowie kleine und mittlere Unternehmen, die Minerale und Metalle einführen, sollten daher durch das mit der Verordnung EU Nr. Hütten und Raffinerien sind eine wichtige Stufe in den globalen Lieferketten für Minerale, denn sie sind in der Regel die letzte Stufe, auf der die Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht effektiv nachgewiesen werden kann, indem Informationen zum Ursprung der Minerale und zur Gewahrsamskette Chain of Custody gesammelt, offengelegt und überprüft werden.

Nach dieser Verarbeitungsstufe wird eine Rückverfolgung bis zum Ursprung der Minerale oftmals als unmöglich erachtet. Gleiches gilt für recycelte Metalle, die sogar noch mehr Verarbeitungsschritte durchlaufen haben. Eine weltweite Unionsliste verantwortungsvoller Hütten und Raffinerien könnte daher Transparenz schaffen und nachgelagerten Wirtschaftsbeteiligten Sicherheit bieten, was die Praxis hinsichtlich der Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht in der Lieferkette betrifft.

Es ist von grundlegender Bedeutung, dass die Unionseinführer von Mineralen und Metallen, die unter diese Verordnung fallen, die Bestimmungen dieser Verordnung einhalten; dies gilt auch für Hütten und Raffinerien in der Union, die Minerale und deren Konzentrate einführen und verarbeiten.

Es ist von besonderer Bedeutung, dass die Kommission im Zuge ihrer Vorbereitungsarbeit angemessene Konsultationen, auch auf der Ebene von Sachverständigen, durchführt und dass diese Konsultationen mit den Grundsätzen im Einklang stehen, die in der Interinstitutionellen Vereinbarung vom Um insbesondere eine gleichberechtigte Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung delegierter Rechtsakte sicherzustellen, erhalten das Europäische Parlament und der Rat alle Dokumente zur gleichen Zeit wie die Sachverständigen der Mitgliedstaaten, und ihre Sachverständigen haben systematisch Zugang zu den Sitzungen der Sachverständigengruppen der Kommission, die mit der Ausarbeitung der delegierten Rechtsakte befasst sind.

Es sollte den zuständigen Mitgliedstaatsbehörden obliegen, sicherzustellen, dass die Unionseinführer von unter diese Verordnung fallenden Mineralen oder Metallen die Bestimmungen einheitlich einhalten, indem geeignete nachträgliche Kontrollen durchgeführt werden.

Aufzeichnungen über solche Kontrollen sollten mindestens fünf Jahre lang aufbewahrt werden. Zur Gewährleistung einheitlicher Bedingungen für die Durchführung dieser Verordnung sollten der Kommission Durchführungsbefugnisse übertragen werden. Angesichts der Natur dieser Durchführungsrechtsakte und im Hinblick auf das begrenzte Ermessen der Kommission dahin gehend, dass diese Rechtsakte auf im Wege eines delegierten Rechtsakts zu erlassende Methoden und Kriterien zur Anerkennung von Systemen zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht durch die Kommission gestützt werden sollten, wird für den Erlass dieser Durchführungsrechtsakte das Beratungsverfahren als das geeignete Verfahren erachtet.

In ihrer gemeinsamen Mitteilung vom 5. Indem durch die Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflicht und mittels Transparenz verhindert wird, dass die Gewinne aus dem Handel mit Mineralen und Metallen zur Finanzierung bewaffneter Konflikte verwendet werden, werden verantwortungsvolle Staatsführung und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsentwicklung gefördert. Diese Verordnung zielt darauf ab, für Transparenz und Sicherheit hinsichtlich der Lieferpraktiken von Unionseinführern sowie von Hütten und Raffinerien zu sorgen, die Rohstoffe aus Konflikt- und Hochrisikogebieten beziehen.

April und spätestens bis zum 1. Februar angelegt wurden. Im Sinne dieser Begriffsbestimmung sind teil- bzw. Einhaltung der Pflichten zur Erfüllung der Sorgfaltspflichten in der Lieferkette durch Unionseinführer. Primärmetall, das nicht unter diese Verordnung fällt, getrennt wird.

Registration of an SE formed by merger in accordance with Article 2 1 6.

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It is also true that more and more, the new international agreements that are formulated and adopted either provide new tasks for existing organizations usually the one sponsoring the agreement or they provide for the creation of new organizations through which the states' parties can collectively carry out some of the objectives of the new instrument or be assisted in doing so individually, but most particularly to help develop the new law even further. Registration of the formation of a subsidiary SE in accordance with Article 2 3 8.

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