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DK168465B1 - An apparatus for the detection of vessels - Google Patents

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Use this ARM or fixed-rate calculator to determine whether a fixed-rate mortgage or an adjustable rate mortgage, or ARM, will be better for you when buying a home. The calculator also compares a. An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) is a loan in which the interest rate may change periodically, usually based upon a pre-determined index. The ARM loan may include an initial fixed-rate period that is typically 3 to 10 years. The interest rate then may change (adjust) each year thereafter once the initial fixed period ends. For example, with a 5/1 ARM loan for a year term, your interest.

Each directional characteristics would indicate a detection and bearing to the vessel. With the advantageous embodiment according to claim 8, a time-Bearing-Plot, in which the detection of vessels, and their subsequent sounding specified. The advantageous embodiment are as claimed in claim 9 enables a separate goal! The invention will now be described, by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings.

The time sequence of the Wrap 1 ingskurven E stands out significantly, the envelope is virtually constant over a period tj, and during a period of time t2 assumes variations, 35 whose frequency and amplitude increasing after time t2. This received audio contains, for example operating sound from a U-boat, which in the period tj are List speed, ie relate quietly and discreetly at low speed, then increase its speed and by the time tj sailing with a higher sail steps.

With the below DK B1 6 explained method, this noise was evaluated for the detection of vessels. The timing of the Wrap! Ingskurven E of the received sound is determined and examined for variations. These noise units of the received noise, it is significant for vessels detection criterion. Ingskurven now suddenly occurs. Hed en hydrofon 10 bliver lyde i henhold til fig.

Called a hydrophone 10, the sounds in accordance with FIG. The hydrophone 10 has all around the same sensitivity. For the hydrophone 10 is above a band pass filter 11 coupled thereto an envelope detector 12 with the low-pass filter 13 at the output of the time course of indhyllingskur friend E occurs. Band-pass filter 11 is present only when the hydrophone 10 is not used has constant sensitivity over the entire frequency range but in a narrower frequency band has an increased sensitivity.

Reviewing scope of the bandpass filter 11 is then tuned to this frequency band. In the frequency analyzing circuit 14 is Wrap! Ingskurven E of 35 for the hydrophone 10 received sound according to Fig. Ingskurven here is almost constant. Between the time t2 which occurs at the end of 7 DK B1 the frequency analyzing circuit 14 is a frequency spectrum at least at a frequency has a spectral line, and if necessary by multiples of the frequency fj.

When several drive units in the vessel radiates sound, additional spectral lines appear in the frequency spectrum. Detekteringsindikatorenheden 16 which is connected downstream of the frequency analyzing circuit 14 includes a threshold circuit 17 and an indicator unit In threshold circuit 17 will be depending on the desired falskal armrate set a detection threshold.

All 15 spectral lines exceed this detection threshold, will depending on their frequency displayed on the display unit To simplify the determination of the detection threshold has been exceeded, the frequency spectrum at the output of the frequency analyzing circuit 14 in a kvotientdanner 20 in relation to a reference cespektrum that is calculated in a calculation circuit Andre metoder til tilvejebringelse af et referencespektrum er ligeledes mulige.

Other methods for providing a reference spectrum are also possible. Man betegner denne signalbehandling normalisering. It represents this signal normalization processing. The normalized spectral lines will be in a kvotientdanneren 20 to 30 coupled threshold step 21 compared with a detection threshold set and displayed on the connected display device 18 when they are below the detection threshold.

X f is the spectral lines as a function of the frequency at the output of calculation circuit To DK B1 8 multiplication stage is coupled an adder , whose other input is connected to a feedback branch from the output of the adding stage The feedback branch comprises a delay stage and a multiplikationsled In delay stage 5 is set at a storage time equivalent to the time after which there occurs each time a new frequency spectrum at the output of the count circuit.

In this calculation process creates an integration of the spectral lines for each frequency and the integration time is set by the stack 15 the number N. Stakningen sker da efter rekursionsformlen: The integrated or smoothed frequency spectrum at the output of integratoranordningen 15 is denoted by S m f , where m is the instantaneous data set, and m-1 is the in the last calculation cycle, the calculation the data sets, and m ranges from 2 to N.

Stack is done when after the recursion formula: In retningsdanneren becomes directional characteristic signals generated and processed in a processing channel which realizes the method.

Each processing channel is made up of a band pass filter 11, one indhylli ngskurvedetektor 12, a low pass filter 13 and a 35 frekvensanalyse- circuit 14 as shown in FIG. To each of the processing channels is coupled to a threshold circuit 17, which belongs to a detekteringsindikatorenhed In detekteringsindikatorenheden are detection results of the individual directional characteristic signals depicted time-dependent on the two display units and st.

On the display unit shows a Time-Bearing-Plot for any 5-assumed example in which the bearings island is shown over time T. Its lysstyringsindgang for lighting control of electron beam 10 County is connected to the threshold circuits Dette kan ikke drages af visningsenheden This can not be drawn from the display device th. The still open-ended questions to detekteringssituationen is solved by a logic circuit in detekteringsindikatorenheden that is not plotted in Fig.

At the outputs of the threshold circuits 17 and 17 dj dy occurs frequency spectra for the corresponding directional characteristic sounds received that exceed the threshold circuits 17 and 17 dj dy set detection threshold.

In this example, spectral lines with frequencies conditions fj and f2 controlled in terms of whether or with directional characteristics are nyopfattet a target under the bearing are dj and dy, or whether to remain in the previously described detekteringseksempel, at time T3 was detected more over a vessel, and there is time for a target separation. At the output H of 15 logic circuit produces a signal when a target is recognized separation. Logic circuit comprises two AND gates , whose four inputs are connected to the outputs of threshold circuits 17 dj, 17 dy, Disse udgange har L-signaler.

These outputs are L signals. At the outputs C and D in the threshold circuit 17 dy results in an spectral lines, their outputs are input and output signals. On 30 outputs E OR gate appears as an O signal. Logic step consists of two AND-gates , , which at their outputs only provides an L-signal when the both inputs are a 5 L signal, a connected NOR gate and one of said clock signal changing flip-flop th At time Tj has the AND gate , an L-signal, the second AND gate a O signal, as no spectral lines was detected there.

At the end of the subsequent NOR gate appear an L-signal which prepares the subsequent 10 flip-flop of an L signal on the output D. It is obvious that also all other spectral lines at the output of the threshold circuits 17 in FIG.

En anden form for afbildning af detekteringsresultater er vist i fig. Another form of representation of the detection results shown in FIG. De tre frekvenser under pejlingen dj og den ene frekvens under pejlingen dg er forblevet bibeholdt. The three frequencies below the bearing dj and the one frequency sub-bearing DG has remained retained.

The vessel has therefore moved on to her course at a constant speed. Adjustable rates transfer part of the interest rate risk from the lender to the borrower. They can be used where unpredictable interest rates make fixed rate loans difficult to obtain.

The borrower benefits if the interest rate falls but loses if the interest rate increases. The borrower benefits from reduced margins to the underlying cost of borrowing compared to fixed or capped rate mortgages.

In some countries, banks may publish a prime lending rate which is used as the index. The index may be applied in one of three ways: A directly applied index means that the interest rate changes exactly with the index. In other words, the interest rate on the note exactly equals the index.

Of the above indices, only the contract rate index is applied directly. To apply an index on a rate plus margin basis means that the interest rate will equal the underlying index plus a margin. The margin is specified in the note and remains fixed over the life of the loan. The final way to apply an index is on a movement basis.

In this scheme, the mortgage is originated at an agreed upon rate, then adjusted based on the movement of the index. The most important basic features of ARMs are: The choice of a home mortgage loan is complicated and time consuming.

Any mortgage where payments made by the borrower may increase over time brings with it the risk of financial hardship to the borrower. To limit this risk, limitations on charges—known as caps in the industry—are a common feature of adjustable rate mortgages.

ARMs that allow negative amortization will typically have payment adjustments that occur less frequently than the interest rate adjustment. For example, the interest rate may be adjusted every month, but the payment amount only once every 12 months. When only two values are given, this indicates that the initial change cap and periodic cap are the same.

ARMs generally permit borrowers to lower their initial payments if they are willing to assume the risk of interest rate changes. There is evidence that consumers tend to prefer contracts with the lowest initial rates such as in the UK, where consumers tend to focus on immediate monthly mortgage costs.

In many countries, banks or similar financial institutions are the primary originators of mortgages. For banks that are funded from customer deposits , the customer deposits typically have much shorter terms than residential mortgages. If a bank offered large volumes of mortgages at fixed rates but derived most of its funding from deposits or other short-term sources of funds , it would have an asset—liability mismatch because of interest rate risk.

In the United States, some argue that the savings and loan crisis was in part caused by the problem: Therefore, banks and other financial institutions offer adjustable rate mortgages because it reduces risk and matches their sources of funding. Banking regulators pay close attention to asset-liability mismatches to avoid such problems, and they place tight restrictions on the amount of long-term fixed-rate mortgages that banks may hold in relation to their other assets.

To reduce the risk, many mortgage originators sell many of their mortgages, particularly the mortgages with fixed rates. For the borrower, adjustable rate mortgages may be less expensive but at the price of bearing higher risk. Many ARMs have " teaser periods ," which are relatively short initial fixed-rate periods typically, one month to one year when the ARM bears an interest rate that is substantially below the "fully indexed" rate.

The teaser period may induce some borrowers to view an ARM as more of a bargain than it really represents. A low teaser rate predisposes an ARM to sustain above-average payment increases. A hybrid ARM features an interest rate that is fixed for an initial period of time, then floats thereafter. The "hybrid" refers to the ARM's blend of fixed-rate and adjustable-rate characteristics. The date that a hybrid ARM shifts from a fixed-rate payment schedule to an adjusting payment schedule is known as the reset date.

The popularity of hybrid ARMs has significantly increased in recent years. Like other ARMs, hybrid ARMs transfer some interest-rate risk from the lender to the borrower, thus allowing the lender to offer a lower note rate in many interest-rate environments.

When a borrower makes a Pay-Option ARM payment that is less than the accruing interest, there is "negative amortization", which means that the unpaid portion of the accruing interest is added to the outstanding principal balance. Moreover, the next month's interest-only payment will be calculated using the new, higher principal balance. During boom times, lenders often underwrite borrowers based on mortgage payments that are below the fully amortizing payment level.

This enables borrowers to qualify for a much larger loan i. When evaluating an Option ARM, prudent borrowers will not focus on the teaser rate or initial payment level, but will consider the characteristics of the index, the size of the "mortgage margin" that is added to the index value, and the other terms of the ARM.

Specifically, they need to consider the possibilities that 1 long-term interest rates go up; 2 their home may not appreciate or may even lose value or even 3 that both risks may materialize. Option ARMs are best suited to sophisticated borrowers with growing incomes, particularly if their incomes fluctuate seasonally and they need the payment flexibility that such an ARM may provide.

Sophisticated borrowers will carefully manage the level of negative amortization that they allow to accrue. In this way, a borrower can control the main risk of an Option ARM, which is "payment shock", when the negative amortization and other features of this product can trigger substantial payment increases in short periods of time. If that happens, the next minimum monthly payment will be at a level that would fully amortize the ARM over its remaining term.

In addition, Option ARMs typically have automatic "recast" dates often every fifth year when the payment is adjusted to get the ARM back on pace to amortize the ARM in full over its remaining term.

Any loan that is allowed to generate negative amortization means that the borrower is reducing his equity in his home, which increases the chance that he won't be able to sell it for enough to repay the loan. Declining property values would exacerbate this risk. Option ARMs may also be available as "hybrids", with longer fixed-rate periods. These products would not be likely to have low teaser rates.

As a result, such ARMs mitigate the possibility of negative amortization, and would likely not appeal to borrowers seeking an "affordability" product. A cash flow ARM is a minimum payment option mortgage loan.

This type of loan allows a borrower to choose their monthly payment from several options. These payment options usually include the option to pay at the year level, year level, interest only level, and a minimum payment level. The minimum payment level is usually lower than the interest only payment.

This type of loan can result in negative amortization. The option to make a minimum payment is usually available only for the first several years of the loan. Cash flow ARM mortgages are synonymous with option ARM or payment option ARM mortgages, however it should be noted that not all loans with cash flow options are adjustable. In fact, fixed rate cash flow option loans retain the same cash flow options as cash flow ARMs and option ARMs, but remain fixed for up to 30 years.

Loan caps provide payment protection against payment shock, and allow a measure of interest rate certainty to those who gamble with initial fixed rates on ARM loans. Initial Adjustment Rate Cap: The majority of loans have a higher cap for initial adjustments that's indexed to the initial fixed period. In other words, the longer the initial fixed term, the more the bank would like to potentially adjust your loan. This is the maximum amount by which an Adjustable Rate Mortgage may increase on each successive adjustment.

Inside the business caps are expressed most often by simply the three numbers involved that signify each cap. See the complete article for the type of ARM that Negative amortization loans are by nature. The typical First Lien Monthly Adjustable loans with Negative amortization loan has a life cap for the underlying rate aka "Fully Indexed Rate" between 9.

Some of these loans can have much higher rate ceilings. The fully indexed rate is always listed on the statement, but borrowers are shielded from the full effect of rate increases by the minimum payment, until the loan is recast, which is when principal and interest payments are due that will fully amortize the loan at the fully indexed rate.

Countries where fixed rate loans are the common form of loan for a house purchase usually need to have a specific legal framework in place to make this possible.

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In this scheme, the mortgage is originated at an agreed upon rate, then adjusted based on the movement of the index.

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