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How the NSA and GCHQ Spied on OPEC

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Every sort of jazz is catered for from trad to progressive. A celebration of all things gastronomic. The emphasis here is not on haute cuisine, but on connecting the consumer and the small producer. The festival attracts over , visitors a year, a prodigious crowd in small town Norway. The well-established Stavanger International Festival of Literature and Freedom of Speech draws its contributors from far and wide and, although most of the lectures and readings are in Norwegian, a fair number are in English.

Kapittel has a different theme each year. All information subject to change. As ever, nothing in Norway comes cheap so expect to pay a fair amount for your bed and board. Hikers and those in search of outdoor pursuits including wildlife watching should aim to visit in the summer months when the warmer weather makes getting out and about in the Norwegian countryside a real pleasure. Better still, the summer is low season, which means accommodation and transport deals aplenty.

Mobile telephony and Internet Since June , EU citizens traveling within the EU, and also in Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein have been able to use their cell phones and surf the Net without incurring any extra charges: In other words, customers pay the same price for phone calls, text messages and data volume as they do at home. Restrictions do apply to the constant use of SIM cards abroad, however, and caps may be set on data packages.

For full details, contact your mobile telephony provider in your country. Free Internet access via Wi-Fi is possible in many busy tourist spots. When using public Wi-Fi networks, it is a wise precaution to ensure encryption of all passwords, credit card details and banking TANs entered. Use of a VPN app or security software to check the safety of a hotspot is recommended. Stavanger is certainly no Stockholm and most of what is to be found around the main pedestrianised streets in the city centre consists of international chains.

Also worth visiting is Dale of Norway on Skagen which sells high-quality locally made knitwear. The centrally located Stavanger Storsenter is the main shopping mall in Stavanger and houses more than 70 shops.

Normal courtesies should be observed and follow similar lines to those of other European countries, with a few regional exceptions, for example, guests refraining from drinking until the host has toasted their health.

Hosts and hostesses often expect an invited guest to offer small gifts on arrival for a meal. Lunch, generally a light open sandwich snack known as a matpakke , takes place between Punctuality is expected if invited out for dinner.

Water that has been boiled or treated with iodine or chlorine tablets is usually safe to drink. It is a trusted, centralized source for the latest international travel requirements. The IATA Travel Centre is the most accurate source available because it is based on a comprehensive database used by virtually every airline, and information is gathered from official sources worldwide, such as immigration and police authorities.

Show all city guides. Sort by category Good to know Discover Enjoy Offers. Book now — Stavanger. OPEC, founded in , has its headquarters in a box-like building in Vienna. Its main objective is to control the global oil market, and to keep prices high.

It stated that OPEC officials were trying to cast the blame for high oil prices on speculators. A look at files in the OPEC legal department revealed how the organization was preparing itself for an antitrust suit in the United States.

And a review of the section reserved for the OPEC secretary general documented that the Saudis were using underhanded tactics, even within the organization. According to the NSA analysts, Riyadh had tried to keep an increase in oil production a secret for as long as possible.

The documents show how careful the Americans were to suspend their surveillance when the Saudi visited the United States. But as soon as he had returned to Riyadh, the NSA analysts began infiltrating his communications once again. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.

The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.

These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relat. This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month.

All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. Central bank discount rate: This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds.

Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.

The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated.

This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.

This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields. Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours.

This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity.

A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from nuclear fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from other renewable sources: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermal , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl. Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m. Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.

CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services. This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection.

The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months. Broadband - fixed subscriptions: This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.

The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing.

Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails.

The four typical types of gauges are: Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp. This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions. This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water. Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels as opposed to all nonmilitary ships , which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.

This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca. This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis.

In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product GDP ; the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.

This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

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This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. Stock of broad money:

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