Translation of «Rücklaufquote» into 25 languages.
Auf Grund des technischen Fortschritts, der sinkenden Kosten und der erhöhten Schnelligkeit hat der Einsatz von Online-Instrumenten und -Methoden in den vergangenen Jahren zugenommen, sowohl im. Sachkenntnis des Respondenten, Innovationsgrad, Wichtigkeit, Realisierungschancen und Wünschbarkeit sowie die österreichischen Chancen hinsichtlich Forschung und Entwicklung, organisatorisch- gesellschaftlicher Umsetzung und wirtschaftlicher Verwertung in einem Zeitraum von 15 Jahren. Insgesamt wurden in der ersten Runde Fragebögen versandt, in der zweiten ; die Rücklaufquoten.
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Meaning of "Rücklaufquote" in the German dictionary. Synonyms and antonyms of Rücklaufquote in the German dictionary of synonyms. Examples of use in the German literature, quotes and news about Rücklaufquote. Abbildung — Grundgesamtheit und Rücklaufquote der persönlichen Befragung Die Reaktionshemmnisse führen zu einer Reduzierung der Rücklaufquote , die die Repräsentanz der Befragung beeinträchtigt.
Rücklauf bei der empirischen Untersuchung Bei dieser für derartige empirische Studien recht guten Rücklaufquote kann aber eine systematische Verzerrung nicht ausgeschlossen werden, wenn sich die antwortenden von den Sie ist das Verhältnis von abgeschlossenen Befragungen zu den versuchten Befragungen. Sandra Knopf, Katja Henze, A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is currently not available.
The Leicester Cough Questionnaire LCQ is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated for a population of general patients presenting with chronic cough. Concurrent validity, internal consistency, reproducibility and responsiveness were determined. Questionnaires were completed at the start of the study.
After 2 and 12 weeks the LCQ was repeated, together with a global rating of change. In total 54 patients were included. Test-retest reliability in stable patients was high intraclass correlation coefficients 0.
The mean difference after two weeks was 0. Responsiveness analysis indicated that the LCQ was able to detect changes after 12 weeks. COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. In COPD was the fifth cause of death and its relative importance is predicted to increase in future years [ 1 , 2 ].
These rates increase with age and are strongly related to smoking [ 6 ]. The high prevalence of cough in COPD may be caused by increased production of mucus, by the inability to produce a sufficiently large expiratory flow leading to ineffective clearing of the mucus, and by impaired mucociliary clearance leading to mucus retention. Also, many patients with COPD have bronchiectasis [ 7 , 8 ]. Chronic productive cough in COPD patients is associated with severe exacerbations which require hospitalization [ 9 ].
These exacerbations have serious effects on health status and quality of life [ 10 ]. To measure this, assessment is recommended on regularly basis [ 4 ]. Although cough is a frequent symptom in COPD, the impact of cough on health status in these patients is largely unknown [ 2 ].
Several cough-specific health status questionnaires have been developed and validated in the general population presenting with cough but not necessarily with COPD [ 11 - 15 ]. Thus, well validated cough-specific health status questionnaires for COPD patients are absent, rendering it impossible to evaluate patients health status both individually and in clinical trials.
The study was designed as a prospective validation study. Blinded data were used from a larger clinical trial in which the effects of azithromycin on cough related health status were studied.
Patients were randomised between azithromycin and placebo for twelve weeks and started at day 1. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials. All questionnaires were administered during the first visit, the LCQ was repeated after two and twelve weeks. The inclusion period lasted from September to September The LCQ is a cough-specific health status questionnaire that is well validated in the general population. It consists of 19 items which are divided over 3 domains: A 7-point Likert scale is used to rate.
It assesses the impact of cough over the preceding 2 weeks. The total score ranges from ; a higher score corresponds to a better health status [ 16 , 18 , 19 ]. We have previously described the validation of the Dutch translation for the general population [ 17 ].
George's respiratory questionnaire SGRQ is a disease-specific health status questionnaire for asthma and COPD, which assesses the impact of symptoms over the preceding 3 months. It contains 76 items divided in 3 sections: The scores range from , a low score indicates a good health status [ 20 , 21 ]. The Short Form Health Survey SF questionnaire is a self administrated generic health status questionnaire containing 36 items that cover 9 health dimensions. The SF comprises 8 health scales: One single item is used to assess any change in health.
Each dimension is scaled from , higher scores represent better health status [ 22 - 26 ]. Concurrent validity appropriate correlations between established measures and the new questionnaire was measured with the SGRQ and SF [ 16 ]. Ideally, we would have used an additional cough-specific questionnaire. However, such questionnaires have not been specifically developed for, nor tested in COPD patients [ 11 - 15 ]. We used the SGRQ as the reference standard.
Internal consistency concerns the degree to which scores of items in a questionnaire correlate homogeneously, and was assessed using data from the LCQ of the first visit. Reproducibility can be divided in agreement and reliability [ 27 ]. Agreement concerns the closeness of the results of repeated measurements after two weeks and assessment is preferred if the aim is to measure change in health status, whereas reliability denotes the degree to which patients can be distinguished from each other, despite measurement error [ 28 ].
Both parameters were obtained by comparing the LCQ scores of week 0 and week 2. Absence of floor or ceiling effects indicates a good content validity [ 17 , 27 ]. Depending on the distribution of the variables Pearson correlation coefficients or Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used. Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0. Responsiveness was measured as the area under the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve which indicates the probability of correctly identifying subjects who report improvement [ 27 , 30 ].
Fifty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. All patients were eligible in the cross-sectional analyses concurrent validity, internal consistency, floor or ceiling effects. Data from 52 patients could be used for reproducibility analysis. Data from 49 patients were used to test responsiveness. Two patients withdrew the informed consent after one week. One patient stopped after 4 weeks because of chronic diarrhoea. Two patients failed to return the questionnaire after 12 weeks.
Most of the patients were male and current smokers with moderate to severe COPD. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, a disease-specific health status questionnaire. Since most of the distributions were skewed, Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used. The concurrent validity showed significant correlations between the corresponding domains described in the statistical analysis section of the LCQ and the SGRQ.
Only the correlation between the psychological domain of the LCQ and the corresponding impact domain of the SGRQ was low to moderate and did not meet the pre-defined minimal level of 0. Correlation coefficients for the LCQ and most of the corresponding domains of the SF were low, and almost non existent for the psychological domain.
For the physical domain the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0. Reproducibility was tested in 24 stable patients. Except for the psychological domain all repeated measurements were highly correlated, which indicates high test-retest reliability. The upper limit of agreement for the LCQ total score is 4. Bland-Altman plot of LCQ total score repeated over 2 weeks in stable patients representing agreement.
The mean difference over 2 weeks is represented by the solid line. The dashed lines are the limits of agreement, which represent 2 times the standard deviation of the mean difference. In these patients the mean change in the total LCQ score after 12 weeks was 4. Thus, the LCQ was able to detect changes in this specific group of patients. The Area Under the Curve is 0. Only one patient 1.
No best possible scores were found. Thus, floor or ceiling effects were not present, both in the domains and in the total questionnaire. It shows that the LCQ in these patients reliably measures the same construct as the original LCQ in patients with chronic cough in the general population. Responsiveness analysis indicated that the change in LCQ total scores after 12 weeks was able to predict which patients reported improved health status and which did not.
No floor or ceiling effects were present which assured good content validity. This may be explained by both questionnaires measuring different concepts, but more importantly, this is caused by the nature of these questionnaires: The results regarding concurrent validity were in accordance with Birring's original validation study but slightly lower compared to the Dutch validation of the LCQ [ 16 ]. In general, the LCQ had an acceptable internal consistency, supporting the hypothesis that the associated questionnaire items are related to each other but do not completely overlap in which case the Cronbach's alpha would have a value of 1, and the item or domain would be redundant.
Three items contributed most to the lower Cronbach's alpha in the physical domain: As most patients with COPD have a smoking history and many suffer form loss of energy or hoarseness these three items may be less discriminative in COPD patients than in patients with chronic cough.
When these items were removed from this domain, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient increased to almost 0. Previous studies showed comparable Cronbach's alpha coefficients which varied between 0.
To examine reproducibility, test-retest reliability and agreement were assessed after two weeks in clinically stable patients. Total score and scores on all domains were repeatable with intraclass correlation coefficients above 0.
This may be explained by both questionnaires measuring different concepts, but more importantly, this is caused by the nature of these questionnaires: Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires.
Oral health and quality of life.